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رد: موضوع مهم جداً لشريبي المتة
1. كيفية تحضير ومعاملة أوراق المتة
Everyone comes together for harvest time in June and July. Guayakí Yerba Maté is harvested by hand. Only the most tender leaves and stems are picked. Maté can be harvested once it is about 4 years old and until they reach an age of about 35. Each year, the maté tree produces more leaves. After the maté is harvested, it is wrapped in cloth. Following the guide lines of organic certification, each bag of maté is weighed and labeled with the section of the forest from which it came, the date, and harvesters who helped pick it
Flash-heating Protects the Life-giving Properties, The freshly picked leaves are immediately flash-heated to protect the healthful antioxidants and nutritional properties. This flash-heating process is used to make all "green" teas. This flash-heating process halts the oxidation of the maté, and preserves the medicinal and nutritional properties of the leaf. The leaves fall across the fire, through the tube and out the other side.
Once the leaves come out on the other side of the sopecadora, they are moved to the barbacoa where they are smoke-dried at a low temperature in the traditional Paraguayan method for 24 hours. The inside temperature reaches about 150 degrees farenheit (66 celcius). While the maté is drying, the indigenous people enter inside the chamber and rotate the leaves by hand to ensure even exposure for optimum flavor.
This process utilizes special hard woods which burn cleanly and produce a distinct flavor. Throughout the year, the indigenous people collect wind-felled trees from the Rainforest Reserve and trees which die of old age (no trees are cut) to use in this traditional drying process.
The wood-drying process instills the maté with a full-bodied flavor
The last step of the processing takes place in a large cedar chamber (estacionamiento) where the yerba maté is aged. Cedar provides a consistent quality and flavor. Cedar also acts as a natural insect repellant.
The maté stays in the aging chamber for 12 months. The maté is inspected and sampled throughout the aging process.
To maintain freshness, the maté is milled down to our loose tea cut just prior to export.
In the Paraguayan tradition, the leaves are then wood-dried for 24 hours using naturally-fallen rainforest hardwoods to impart a unique woodsy flavor. No trees are cut! This smoke travels a 50-foot channel arriving to the yerba maté as "clean" low-temperature, white smoke.
Yerba Maté is prepared using a combination of leaf, stems (for sweetness) and leaf powder (for strength). This traditional cut is believed to yield a more nutritious, flavorful and potent yerba maté. http://www.guayaki.com/
After drying, the herb is aged for twelve months, producing a rich, smooth-flavored yerba characteristic of northern Argentina. For the final stages of processing, stems and powder are removed from the herb, leaving an exceptionally high-quality pure leaf product
2. كيفية تحضير منقوع المتة
تأثير طريقة تحضير المتة على محتواها من المواد الفينولية
3. محتوى المتة من المواد الفينولية
تعريف و أنواع المواد الفينولية بشكل عام
4. التأثير الفيزلوجي والنفسي:Reasons for mate's unique physiological attributes are beginning to emerge in scientific research. Studies of mate, though very limited, have shown preliminary evidence that the mate xanthine cocktail is different from other plants containing caffeine most significantly in its effects on muscle tissue, as opposed to those on the central nervous system, which are similar to those of other natural stimulants. Mate has been shown to have a relaxing effect on smooth muscle tissue, and a stimulating effect on myocardial (heart) tissue.
Mate's negative effects are anecdotally claimed to be of a lesser degree than those of caffeine, though no explanation for this is offered or even credibly postulated, except for its potential as a placebo effect. Many users report that drinking yerba mate does not prevent them from being able to fall asleep, as is often the case with some more common stimulating beverages, while still enhancing their energy and ability to remain awake at will. However, the net amount of caffeine in one preparation of yerba mate is typically quite high, in large part because the repeated filling of the mate with hot water is able to extract the highly-soluble xanthines extremely effectively. It is for this reason that one mate may be shared among several people and yet produce the desired stimulating effect in all of them.
In-vivo and in-vitro studies are showing yerba mate to exhibit significant cancer-fighting activity. Researchers at the University of Illinois (2005) found yerba mate to be "rich in phenolic constituents" and to "inhibit oral cancer cell proliferation".
Better than any other xanthine alkaloid, Mate has the ability to increase mental alertness and acuity and to do it without any side effects such as nervousness and jitters. It seems to act like a tonic, stimulating a weakened and depressed nervous system and sedating an overexcited one. Our knowledge of Mate's effects is currently limited to observations of behavior changes such as more energy and vitality; better ability to concentrate; less nervousness, agitation, and anxiety; and increased resistance to both physical and mental fatigue. Improvement in mood, especially in cases of depression, often follows drinking the tea. This may be a direct or indirect result of increased energy. One of the remarkable aspects of Mate is that it does not interfere with sleep cycles; in fact, it has a tendency to balance the cycles, inducing
4-1 التأثيرات على الجهاز العصبي
رد: موضوع مهم جداً لشريبي المتة
4-2 التأثيرات على الجهاز الهضميGASTROINTESTINAL PROPERTIES
Perhaps the main area to benefit from Mate is the gastrointestinal tract. Reported effects range from immediate improvement in digestion to the ability to repair damaged and diseased gastrointestinal tissues. Constipation, acute or chronic, can easily be overcome through the use of Mate. Mate appears to work mainly by softening the fecal mass, but it also appears to stimulate normal movement of the intestines to some degree.
4-3 التأثيرات على القلب والأوعية الدموية
Heart Ailments of all kinds have been treated or prevented through Yerba Mate use. Yerba Mate supplies many of the nutrients required by the heart for growth and repair. In addition, it increases the supply of oxygen to the heart, especially during periods of stress or exercise. Mate has become a favorite of body builders and anyone interested in the health benefits of exercise. The metabolic effects of Mate appear to include the ability to maintain aerobic glycolysis (breakdown of carbohydrates) during exercise for longer periods of time. This results in burning more calories, increasing cardiac efficiency, and delaying anaerobic glycolysis and the resulting buildup of lactic acid during exercise. Reports of Mate reducing blood pressure are not uncommon.
EFFECTS ON THE IMMUNE SYSTEM
4-4 التأثيرات على نظام المناعة
A consistent observation in most South American literature on Mate is that it increases the immune response of the body, stimulating natural resistance to disease. This results in a nourishing and strengthening effect on the ill person, both during the course of the illness and during convalescence, sometimes dramatically accelerating recovery times. Exact mechanisms of Mate's action have not been worked out, but they involve both a direct action against infectious organisms, and an effect on overall resistance to disease. The nutritional content of the plant probably plays a major role here, but it is also probable that other constituents contribute to the action by stimulating the activity of white blood cells.
4-5 علاقة المتة بأمراض السرطان
4-6 المتة وفقدان الوزن
1. التظاهرات المرضية للانسمام بالمتة
2. فوائد المتة (القيمة الغذائية)
The interaction of the many nutrients in Mate have never been systematically studied. But the stories surrounding the nutritional application of Mate tea are nothing short of amazing. Mate is often used as a staple food, sometimes substituting for such important foods as bread and vegetables. It easily eliminates the sensation of hunger and can impart as much invigoration as a full meal, according to the well-known Chilean herbalists J. Zin and R. Weiss. Peace Corps workers have reported cases in which large groups of natives remain in good health for extended periods of drought and famine, even though they eat only one small meal per day. How so? By drinking copious amounts of Yerba Mate tea. Some natives spend their entire lives on such a diet and live to very advanced ages, sometimes in excess of 100 years. South American governments have adopted the practice of encouraging mothers, especially in the poorer regions, to include Yerba Mate in the diet of their school-age children. http://www.noborders.net/mate/index.html
Naturally Teeming with Nutrients!
VitaminsTable of Nutrients
A, C, E, B1, B2, Niacin (B3), B5, B Complex, Biotin, Choline, Inositol
Calcium, Manganese, Iron, Selenium, Potassium, Magnesium, Silicon, Phosphorus, Sulfur
15 Amino Acids, Fatty Acids, Chlorophyll, Flavenols, Polyphenols, Trace Minerals, and Antioxidants
Potent antioxidant. Essential for immune system. Prevents night blindness. Aids in skin disorders and acne. Necessary for tissue repair and maintenance.
Potent antioxidant . Vital for tissue growth and repair. Benefits immune system.
Aids circulation. Vital for tissue repair and maintenance. Potent antioxidant. Useful in treating PMS, fibrocystic breast disease. Benefits immune system.
Essential for the function of the nervous system, heart muscles, and brain. Aids in the metabolism of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates.
Creates body tissue and red blood cells. Aids in the metabolism of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates.
Vitamin B3 (Niacin)
Aids in treating osteoarthritis. Helps in the metabolism of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates. Benefits digestion.
Aids in metabolizing fats, proteins, and carbohydrates. Potent antioxidant. Enables adrenal gland function and nerve transmission. Helps production of red blood cells.
Biotin aids in cell growth, in fatty acid production, in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, and in the utilization of the B-complex vitamins. Biotin also promotes healthy sweat glands, nerve tissue, and bone marrow.
Necessary for nerve transmission, gallbladder regulation, and liver function, choline also minimizes excess fat in the liver and aids in hormone production.
Is vital for hair growth. It helps prevent hardening of the arteries and helps remove fats from the liver.
Assists in blood clotting and regulates hormones, muscle contractions, and nerve impulses. Strengthens bones and teeth.
Essential for bone and cartilage formation. Aids in sex hormone function. Activates enzymes for vitamins absorption. Necessary for metabolism of proteins, fats, and cholesterol.
Essential for immune function. Vital for hemoglobin production. Aids in energy production.
رد: موضوع مهم جداً لشريبي المتة
Antioxidant. Preventative against heart disease and cancer. Aids immune response. Needed for tissue elasticity. Potassium -Necessary for nervous system, hormone, and muscle function. Regulates blood pressure and controls heart activity. Balances water/sodium balance.
Essential for heart and muscle function. Vital for bone formation. Aids enzymatic systems.
Vital for healthy tissue repair and growth. Necessary for metabolism of calcium, vitamins, fats, proteins, and carbohydrates. Aids in energy production.
Helps to disinfect the blood and aids in the resistance of bacteria. It aids in oxidation reactions, stimulates bile secretions in the liver, and protects against toxic substances.
Amino acids are the building blocks of life, joined together in chains that make up proteins. Proteins are a necessary part of every living cell in the body. The DNA code that is inherent in every single cell is actually information regarding how to make that cell's proteins. The proteins that make up the human body are not obtained directly from a person's diet. Rather, a person ingests amino acids, which the body then uses to build the specific proteins it needs. There are approximately 28 commonly known amino acids. These amino acids combine to form the hundreds of different proteins that make up all living things. In the human body, the liver produces about 80% of the amino acids needed. The remaining 20% must come directly from the diet, and are thus called: essential amino acids.
Helps in the growth and repair of tissues. Is needed for the production of both red and white blood cells.
Necessary for hemoglobin formation. Stabilizes and regulates blood sugar and energy levels.
Protects muscle and acts as a fuel for the body. Promotes healing of bones, skin, and muscle tissue.
Building block for all protein. Helps calcium absorption and maintains a proper nitrogen balance in adults. Aids in the production of antibodies, hormones, and enzymes. Helps in collagen formation and tissue repair.
Assists in the breakdown of fats, preventing the build-up of fat in the liver and arteries. Aids the digestive system. Very beneficial for allergic chemical sensitivities and osteoporosis.
Aids liver function by helping to prevent fatty buildup. Enhances the immune system by aiding in the production of antibodies.
Cures insomnia, helps stabilize moods and is used by the brain to produce serotonin. Alleviates stress, aids the heart and helps with weight control.
Treats anxiety, depression, allergies and headaches. Acts as a mood elevator, suppresses the appetite and reduces body fat.
Stimulant effect. Enhances muscle metabolism, tissue repair and nitrogen balance.
Tonics are the substances provided by Nature for the repair and maintenance of normal physiology. Yerba maté is considered a whole-body tonic - it goes where the body needs it most and restores balance to body systems that are under stress.
Induces Mental Clarity
Dr. Mowrey, Ph.D., states that, "Better than any other xanthine alkaloid, maté has the ability to quicken the mind" and "increase mental alertness and acuity." He adds that, "like other xanthines, it stimulates the central nervous system but, unlike most, it is not habituating or addicting."
Sustains Energy Levels
The metabolic effects of maté include the ability to maintain aerobic breakdown of carbohydrates during exercise for long periods of time. As a result, more calories are burned, thereby increasing cardiac efficiency and delaying the build-up of lactic acid.
Boosts the Immune System
Yerba maté leaves have been found to contain a group of known and novel saponins. These phytochemicals stimulate the immune system, aiding the body in protecting against disease.
Helps Relieve Allergies
Linda Rector Page, N.D., Ph.D., notes that yerba maté is helpful in opening respiratory passages to overcome allergy symptoms. Shown to reduce the severity of some allergies and hay fever, yerba maté works by stimulating the adrenal glands to produce corticosteroids, which help suppress the inflammation and immune response due to allergies.
Aids Weight Loss
In Europe maté is used for weight loss "as the ideal slimming remedy which facilitates losing weight in a natural way and stills the distressing feelings of hunger," according to Max Witchl in Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. Clinical evidence also suggests that yerba maté may be useful as an antidiabetic agent, as it seems to slow the development of hyperglycemia (excess sugar in the blood). Researchers at the University of Surrey in Guildford, England, found that maté reduced the abnormal appetite and thirst, as well as weight loss, associated with diabetes.
Dr. Mowrey, Ph.D., notes, "Reported effects range from the immediate improvement in digestion to the ability to repair damaged and diseased gastrointestinal tissues. Constipation, acute or chronic, can easily be overcome through the use of maté." He also states that yerba maté is useful as a therapy for gastrointestinal disorders.
Traditional Indigenous Herbalism
Traditionally, the Paraguayans use yerba maté as the herbal base for their daily herbal medicine mixtures. Yuyeras (herbalists) sell herbs to make remedios (herbal remedies) in the maté gourd. As an herbal base, yerba maté acts as a catalyst to enhance the healing powers of other herbs. By improving healthy circulation and promoting balance, maté helps assimilate other herbs into the body. South Americans drink maté as a daily tonic for optimum health.
1. بعض الإحصاءات المتعلقة بالمتةويقدر إنتاج المتة سنويا بحوالي (300) ألف طن في العالم.
الإنتاج السنوي، مقدار المتة المصدرة من بعض البلدان المنتجة، نسبة الاستهلاك، الأسعار، استهلاك الفرد الواحد من المتة في السنة الواحدة في بعض البلدان،
اما الانتاج فيصل احياناً في الارجنتين حتى حوالي 100000 طن، الارغواي 18000 طن ، تشيلي 7000 طن وهكذا..
2. مقارنة بين المتة وبقية المشروبات المحتوية على كافيئين (القهوة والشاي والكاكاو) من حيث التركيب،أماكن الإنتاج والإستهلاك، الأضرار و الفوائد
La caféine Comparaison Contente
Les Produits communs de Boisson
Planter la Boisson
Avg. la caféine dans une 6 boisson d'once*
Yerba maté part
Les haricots de café (Coffea sp)
Le thé noir (Camellia sinensis)
La semence de Guaraná (Paullinia cupana)
Le chocolat (la semence de Cacao)
Black Tea . . . . . . . 106 mg
Green Tea . . . . . . 307 mg
Yerba Maté . . . . . 303 mg
*Expressed in milligrams of chlorogenic acid in a typical 2g tea bag. Actual yerba mate tea bag is 3g
3. العوامل المؤثرة على المتة أثناء تخزينها
4. المواصفة القياسية السورية للمتة
5. أنواع ومصادر المتة المتوفرة في السوق المحلية السورية
1- Valduga, E., 1995. Chemical and anatomic characterization of Ilex paraguariensis Saint Hilaire leaf and some species used in adulterating Yerba Mate. Post-graduation thesis presented at the University of Paraná, Curitiba.
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